Two Sources of Gravitation

Gravitative Induction (±GI), the Kinetics of Galaxies, Galaxy Clusters, and Cosmic Evolution

This is my first scientific paper in astrophysics, published on pre-print servers on July 27,  2023. I had the original idea in Tokyo in 2007. Since then, I have been collecting information and reading scientific articles about it. Four years ago, I started to really dig into astronomy, astrophysics, Newton's mechanics, and Einstein's general theory of relativity, including all the math.


It helped a lot that I had always been interested in natural sciences, especially in physics. My father was a physicist and engineer, and I first encountered special relativity at the age of thirteen. I used to sneak around his old sailor's trunk, which contained all his study books from the 1950s. One book in particular was interesting because it showed clocks that ran differently when you moved them in different directions or at different speeds. That fascinated me. When I was fifteen, I read the first biography of Albert Einstein (by Ronald W. Clark). And when I graduated from high school, physics was one of my exam subjects where I was tested on special relativity.


In my philosophy studies in Munich I became a Kant expert, my specialty being his natural philosophy. Kant's heroes here were Francis Bacon and Isaac Newton. Kant himself was the first person to recognize the shape of the Milky Way is a rotating disk that we see from the side; he was also the first to identify the "milky patch" M31 as an "island of worlds", another galaxy outside of the Milky Way, namely the Andromeda galaxy. I have invested a great deal of time and effort in the question of whether, and if so how, Einstein's general theory of relativity (and, for that matter, quantum mechanics) can be explained by Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. My preliminary answer is yes, but that's for my upcoming book You are Many - The Polycentric Subject.


By the way, since then I have a pretty clear idea of how absolutely ignorant of physics and natural sciences in general practically all living philosophers are. Therefore I could only agree with Stephen Hawking when he stated in 1988 at the end of A Brief History of Time and again in 2010 in The Grand Design that philosophy is dead because it does not take the natural sciences seriously enough. To prove how powerful Kant's philosophy still is, also and especially for the natural sciences and mathematics, I wrote the paper  Laws of Singularity  in 2017, in which I formulated, with Kant's help, ten laws that will govern any future artificial superintelligence aka technological singularity.


Nevertheless, I really had a lot of catching up to do in order to work out my first own physical or rather astrophysical theory, especially in calculus, classical mechanics, and non-Euclidean geometry, not to mention the state of the art in astronomy and astrophysics. What I dreaded most was the math for the equations of the new galactic solutions in Newton and Einstein that I had to derive. My initial fear was that this math didn't exist yet and that Aladdin's cave would remain sealed forever, at least for me.


Funnily enough, this went quite smoothly. Only when I applied S-GEN, my Second Galactic Equation in Newton, to the orbit of the Sun around the center of the Milky Way, I failed miserably for quite a while. It took me weeks to find out that I had made one simple mistake in basic algebra. Imagine my joy when I fixed this and S-GEN delivered the exact values that had just been measured by the VERA Collaboration in 2020 and by Gaia EDR3 in 2022 for both the orbital speed and the orbital acceleration of the Sun! 


I am, after all, a Leitz folder fetishist, as you can see in the picture above. So the years of work on gravitative induction naturally had to have a presence on my shelf commensurate with its importance. And whenever I was desperate and didn't know what to do (which happened several times), I just looked at it and thought: It looks pretty good already. So keep going!


Now the scientific paper is finally finished in which I developed my theory of gravitative induction. It is about the replacement of ΛCDM, the standard model of cosmology, an almost occultist paradigm that holds us prisoners in a 'dark universe'. The Λ (lambda) stands for the cosmological constant or dark energy that supposedly accelerates the expansion of the universe; the CDM stands for Cold Dark Matter, the invisible and undetectable dark matter that makes galaxies much heavier - individual galaxies 5 to 8 times heavier, galaxy clusters over 10 times heavier - than they should be according to their content of ordinary observable mass (so-called. baryonic mass, i.e., all molecules, atoms, protons, neutrons, and electrons).


I have identified a physical process that conclusively explains the phenomena associated with ΛCDM, and tested the galactic solutions to Newton's and Einstein's equations that I derived with initial calculations using the orbital velocity and acceleration of the Sun around the center of the Milky Way. With success! The next step is the peer-reviewed publication in one of the international journals.



Gravitative induction (±GI) is a theory about two new particles, +gravilets and -gravilets. They are by-products of nuclear fusion in stars passing through the stationary gravitational potential of their host systems above the critical threshold velocity vth50 kms-1. The ±gravilets are produced in pairs by polarization of the quantum vacuum and have masses of 125 GeV each. For this mechanism to work, the minimum value of the vacuum energy in space must be 2.17 x 1015 GeVm-3. The +gravilets strengthen the baryonic gravitational potentials of their host galaxies (the wells), causing the non-Keplerian rise of their rotation curves; the gravilets build up gravitationally repulsive potentials in intergalactic space (the hills), thereby pushing the galaxies apart and causing the Universe to expand spatially (but neither homogeneously nor isotropically). This process is predicted (the First Prediction) to have evolved slowly over cosmic time so that early galaxies (z>2) are increasingly in the Newtonian regime without excess gravity. This makes ±GI a source of two emergent non-conservative force fields which were not present prior to galaxy formation and that do physical work, namely jerking (i.e. increasing the acceleration with time) stars in their galactic orbits, galaxies in clusters, and galaxies and clusters on the scale of the Universe. Therefore, ±GI describes these positive and negative excess gravities as functions of time. On this basis, galactic solutions to Newton’s laws are proposed. The Second Galactic Equation in Newton (S-GEN) is tested by calculating the exact orbital velocities of the Sun at the time of its formation (204 kms‑1), in our epoch (227 kms-1), and at the end of its stellar life (260 kms-1). In a first draft, a jerk, the third derivative of the position function, is encoded in Einstein’s field equations to approximate their galactic solutions, the Standard Galactic Equations in Einstein (S-GEE).


Key words: Cosmology: theory – dark energy – dark matter – Galaxies: kinematics and dynamics – large-scale structure of Universe